Data Glossary

A utility that searches a hard disk for viruses and removes any that are found. Most antivirus programs include an auto-update feature that enables the program to download profiles of new viruses so that it can check for the new viruses as soon as they are discovered. Server appliance Also called an appliance server, a specialized server that is designed for ease of installation and maintenance. Server appliances have their hardware and software bundled in the product, so all applications are pre-installed. The appliance is plugged into an existing network and can begin working almost immediately, with little configuration. It is designed to run with little or no support.


  1. See application service provider.
  2. See Active Server Pages.
  3. Short for Association of Shareware Professionals.

(v.) To copy files to a second medium (a disk or tape) as precaution in case the first medium fails. One of the cardinal rules in using computers in back up your files regularly.


  1. A range within a band of frequencies or wavelengths.
  2. The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time. For digital devices, the bandwidth is usually expressed in bits per second (bps) or bytes per second. For analog devices, the bandwidth is expressed in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz).

Server blade
A single circuit board populated with components such as processors, memory, and network connections that are usually found on multiple boards. Server blades are designed to slide into existing servers. Server blades are more cost-efficient, smaller and consume less power than traditional box-based servers.

(n.) Short for Web log, a blog is a Web page that serves as a publicly accessible personal journal for an individual. Typically updated daily, blogs often reflect the personality of the author. (v.) To author a Web log.

A type of data transmission in which a single medium (wire) can carry several channels at once. Cable T.V, for example, uses broadband transmission. In contrast, baseband transmission allows only one signal at a time.

Business Intelligence
Most companies collect a large amount of data from their business operations. To keep track of that information, a business would need to use a wide range of software programs, such as Excel, Access and different database applications for various departments throughout their organization. Using multiple software programs makes it difficult to retrieve information in a timely manner and to perform analysis of the data.

Short for customer relationship management. CRM entails all aspects of interaction a company has with its customer, whether it be sales or service related. Computerization has changed the way companies are approaching their CRM strategizes because it has also changed consumer buying behavior. With each new advance in technology, especially the proliferation of self-service channels like the Web and WAP phones, more the relationship is being managed electronically. Organization are therefore looking for ways to personalize online experiences (a process also referred to as mass customization) through tools such as help desk software, email organizers and Web development apps.

Short for disaster recovery plan, a plan for business continuity in the event of a disaster that destroys part or all of a business's resources, including IT equipment, data records and the physical space of an organization. The goal of DRP is to resume normal computing capabilities in as little time as possible.

Electronic Commence
Often referred to as simply e-commerce, business that is conducted over the Internet using any of the applications that rely on the Internet, such as email, instant messaging, shopping carts, Web services, UDDI, FTP, and EDI among others. Electronic commerce can be between two businesses transmitting funds, goods, services and/or data or between a business and a customer.

A local-area network (LAN) architecture developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps. The Ethernet specification served as the basis for the IEEE 802.3 standard, which specifies the physical and lower software layers. Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD access method to handle simultaneous demands. It is one of the most widely implemented LAN standards.

(n.) A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or form a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.

Hosting Service Provider
A Hosting Service Provider (HSP) is an application service provider dedicated to providing hosting services. Typically operates a Web server farm, either at a data center or collocation facility

Intrusion Detection System
An intrusion detection system (IDS) inspects all inbound and outbound network activity and identifies suspicious patterns that may indicate a network or system attack from someone attempting to break into or compromise a system.

A network based on TCP/IP protocols (an internet) belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organization's members, employees, or others with authorization. An intranet's Web sites look and act just like any other Web sites, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access.

IP Telephony – (Internet Protocol Telephony)
The two-way transmission of audio over a packet-switched IP network (TCP/IP network). When used in a private intranet or WAN, it is generally known as "voice over IP," or "VoIP." When the transport is the public Internet or the Internet backbone from a major carrier, it is generally called "IP telephony" or "Internet telephony." However, the terms IP telephony, Internet telephony and VoIP are used interchangeably.

Intrusion Prevention System
An IPS, or intrusion prevention system is used in computer security. It provides policies and rules for network traffic along with an intrusion detection system for alerting system or network administrators to suspicious traffic, but allows the administrator to provide the action upon being alerted. Some compare an IPS to combination of IDS and an application layer firewall for protection.

Local- Area Network
A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LAN's are confined to single building or group of buildings or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN).

(Pronounced as separate letters) Short for original equipment manufacturer, which is a misleading term for a company that has special relationship with computer producers. OEMs are manufacturers who resell another company's product under their own name and branding. While an OEM is similar to a VAR (value-added reseller), it refers specifically to the act of a company rebranding a product to its own and offering its own warranty, support and licensing of the product. The term is really a misnomer because OEMs are not the original manufacturers; they are the customizers.

(v.) To seek resources outside of an organizational structure, usually to save money and/or exploit the skills of another entity. Typically used in terms of the business world, outsourcing often entails an enterprise using another company, such as a consultancy or application service provider, to provide a service that the enterprise can provide for itself, yet it is cheaper to utilize a third- party's resources. For example, an enterprise might outsource its IT management because it is cheaper to contract a third-party to do so than it would be to build its own in-house IT management team. Or a company might outsource all of its data storage needs because it does not want to buy and maintain its own data storage devices. Or, a business might outsource its human resource tasks to a third-party instead of having its own dedicated human resource staff.

(n.) The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web-site where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords and credit card, social security, and blank account numbers, that the legitimate organizations already has. The Web site however is bogus and set up only to steal the user's information.

(1) Short for Software as a Service, SaaS is a software delivery method that provides access to software and its functions remotely as a Web-based service. SaaS allows organizations to access business functionality at a cost typically less than paying for licensed applications since SaaS pricing is based on a monthly fee. Also, because the software is hosted remotely, users don't need to invest in additional hardware. SaaS removes the need for organizations to handle the installation, set-up and often daily upkeep and maintenance. Software as a Service may also referred to as a simply hosted applications.

In storage networking terminology, a Storage Area Network (SAN) is a high-speed sub-network of shared storage devices. A storage device is a machine that contains nothing but a disk or disks for storing data.

Security Policy
A security policy is a document that outlines the rules, laws, and practices for computer network access. This document regulates how an organization will manage, protect and distribute its sensitive information (both corporate and client information) and lays the framework for the computer-network-oriented security of the organization

Short for search engine optimization, the process of increasing the amount of visitors to a Web site by ranking high in the search result of a search engine. The higher a Web site ranks in the result of a search, the greater the chance that that site will be visited by a user. It is common practice for Internet users to not click through pages and pages of search results, so where a site ranks in a search is essential for directing more traffic toward the site.

(n.) A computer or device on a network that manages network resources. For example, a file server is a computer and storage device dedicated to storing files. Any user on the network can store files on server. A print server is a computer that manages one or more printers, and a network server is a computer that manages network traffic. A database server is a computer system that processes database queries.

Short for Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging protocol used to encode the information in Web service request and response messages before sending them over a network. SOAP messaging are independent of any operating system or protocol and may be transported using a variety of Internet protocols, including SMTP, MIME, and HTTP.

Short for Storage over IP, SoIP technology refers to the merging of Fibre Channel technologies with IP-based technology to allow for accessing storage devices over TCP/IP networks. SoIP is the framework for storage area networking (SAN) using Internet Protocol (IP) networks to directly connect servers and storage. SoIP products are designed to support transparent interoperability of storage devices based on Fibre Channels, SCSI, and a new class of Gigabit Ethernet storage devices using iSCSI and iFCP. Exsititing Fibre Channel or can be included in an SoIP storage network without modification.

Short for Secure Sockets Layer, a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet. SSL uses a cryptographic system that uses two keys to encrypt data- a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to recipient of the message. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL, and many Web sites use the protocol to obtain confidential users information such as credit cards numbers. By convention, URLs that require an SSL connection start with https: instead of http:.


  1. The capacity of a device to hold and retain data.
  2. Short for mass storage.

Trojan horse
A destructive program that masquerades as a benign application. Unlike viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive. One of the most insidious types of Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer.

Short for value-added reseller, VARs typically load applications or proprietary software onto computers and my also incorporate third-party options to design a complete solution for a client. This "value-added" system is often customized for a specific application, but is sold to the VAR's customer base under the original design manufacturer brand; with that manufacturer's warranty, support, and license agreements. VARs may also resell customized OEM equipment.

A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes. Viruses can also replicate themselves. All computer viruses are manmade. A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt. An even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of transmitting itself across networks and by passing security systems.

Short for Voice over Internet Protocol, a category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls by sending voice data in packets using IP rather than by traditional circuit transmissions of the PSTN. One advantage of VoIP is that the telephone calls over the Internet do not incur a surcharge beyond what user is paying for Internet access, much in the same way that the user doesn't pay for sending individual e-mails over the Internet.

Short for virtual private network, a network that is constructed by using public wires to connect nodes. For example, there are a number of systems that enable you to create networks using the Internet as the medium for transporting data. These systems use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted.

Web Services
The term Web services describes a standardized way of integrating Web-based applications using the XML, SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI open standards over an Internet protocol backbone. XML is used to tag the data, SOAP is used to transfer the data, WSDL is used for describing the services available and UDDI is used for listing what services are available. Used primarily as a means for businesses to communicate with each other and with clients, Web services allow organizations to communicate data without intimate knowledge of each other's IT systems behind the firewall.

The name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards."

The word wireless is dictionary defined as "having no wires". In networking terminology, wireless is the term used to describe any computer network where there is no physical wired connection between sender and receiver, but rather the network is connected by radio waves and/ or microwaves to maintain communications. Wireless networking utilizes specific equipment such as NICs, APs and routers in place of wires (copper or optical fiber) for connectivity.

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